Suffixes in English
For reference: a suffix is a part of a word that is attached after the root. Both in English and Russian they can be:
- word-forming – they create a new word with a new lexical meaning: to write – writer, etc.
- Formative – they create another form of a word without changing its lexical meaning: to speak – spoke (forms the form of the past tense), to study – studied, etc.
By the way, if prefixes almost do not form the words of the new part of speech, our today’s heroes do it very often: awe => awful. So we will consider the suffixes according to the parts of speech in English:
- the dialects.
Nouns suffixes in English
First of all, let us consider morphemes that form nouns with the value of the device or person performing the action.
Suffixes -er, -or, -ar
Very productive affixes. Can form both inanimate and inanimate nouns. From the verb (i.e. action) they form a noun (actor).
Examples: teacher (teacher), actor (actor), beggar (beggar, beg to beg).
If the root ends in -e, only the letter r is attached, for example: to make – a maker, to use – a user.
It serves to form feminine nouns.
Examples: stewardess, poetess, princess.
Note that usually the producing word does not change in any way: author – authoress. But there are exceptions: actor – actress, ambassador – ambassadress and others.
Suffixes -an, -ian
Identifies nouns indicating nationality, country, rank or profession.
Examples: optician (oculist), european (European), musician (musician).
Serves to denote belonging to a particular profession / activity (including science, music, sports, etc.), scientific, political, literary, etc. direction.
Realist (realist), pianist (pianist), geologist (geologist). Go to the site and find out morehttps://argoprep.com/blog/suffixes-the-chameleon-part-of-speech/
Examples in suffix -ee in English: employee, trainee, nominee.
Suffixes -ant, -ent
Examples: assistant, accountant, correspondent.
We’re done with the suffixes of “figures”. Let us move on to the other noun suffixes in English.
- Value of collection – indicates a collection, set, group of something: luggage,
- Value of process, action or result of an action: haulage, passage, breakage,
- The meaning of the house or place: orphanage.
This English suffix is very productive.
Creates abstract nouns with the value of a state or mode.
Example: lunacy, efficiency, privacy.
Suffixes -ence, -ance
Also forms abstract nouns. Indicates action, state or quality.
Appearance, convenience, dependency.
Suffix denotes an action, state or quality.
- condition, quality, position: childhood,
- involvement in a particular group of people connected to something: orphanhood.
It forms nouns from verbs, for example:
Meeting, building, fighting.
Values – action, state or result.
Confusion, confusion, education, expression.
Suffix – meaning.
Forms nouns with the value of an action or process, product or result of an action, as well as a state (including the state caused by an action).
English words with the suffix ment: improvement, movement, advancement.
The suffix of the English language indicating status or quality:
Kindness, happiness, sadness.
- A certain title, position: lordship,
- Skill or skill: horsemanship (art of riding),
- State of relations: partnership
Forms nouns with a quality value:
truth, health, strength.